BACTROCERA OLEAE

Olive fly biocontrol

Common name: Olive fruit fly
Scientific name: Bactrocera oleae
Order: Diptera
Affects: Olive trees
Main season: Spring, Summer and Autumn

Dacus (Bactrocera) oleae

General information

This species is related to plants of the Olea genus and in particular to the olive tree. It is found throughout the Mediterranean Basin, South Africa, Canary Islands, India and Western Asia. In the Western hemisphere, it is only found in California. It is considered to be the most damaging/important pest of olive trees in the regions where it is present, even conditioning the quantity and quality of the majority of crops.

olive

Its attacks tend to increase in wetter and colder areas, with great variability according to the variety of olives cultivated. It is less noticeable in areas with dry and hot summers.


Morphology and biology

The adult insect is a reddish-grey or orange colour which is highlighted by black spots.

It has transparent, iridescent wings and the lower part of its thorax is yellow. Its eggs are long and white. The larva is apodous and white. The pupa is elongated and has a yellowish colour, that darkens as it grows.

Dacus adult (Bactrocera) oleae

On average, two to three generations can be observed every year, depending on the climatic conditions. They usually overwinter in pupal stage which is located underground at little depth, although individuals can be found at all stages of development.

The adults of the first generation appear in March or April and spend some time feeding on sugary substances, such as the honeydew from some Homopterans, until they reach sexual maturity and begin to lay eggs. The female lays her eggs under the skin of the chosen olive. The olive should have the correct level of ripeness and must not be occupied by another egg. It is common for this insect to lay only one egg per olive.

After hatching, the larva feeds on the olive by excavating a small and torturous gallery. Once the larva has finished growing, it pupates inside the fruit near the epidermis.

Flight activity of the olive fruit fly reaches its highest peaks in July and October. However, there is a greater increase in flight activity during October.


Damages

There are two types of damage caused by the olive fruit fly: quantitative and qualitative.

Quantitative damages are caused by second stage larvae and especially third stage larvae. They consume an important amount of the olive’s pulp, which as a result, reduces the quality of the oil. Part of the production is lost because the olives that have been attacked fall prematurely from the tree. In olives used to produce oil, damage caused by the bite marks and first stage larvae do not have a significant economic impact. However, for table olives, the bite marks depreciate the value of the product.

Damage to the olive tree

However, for table olives, the bite marks depreciate the value of the product

In terms of quality, it should be considered that olives with a high percentage of this pest produce oil of poorer quality, particularly if they are third stage larvae. The oil extracted from these olives may have an acidity level (expressed in oleic acid) from 2 to 10% depending on the percentage of infestation. It is also less possible to preserve these oils because they contain a higher percentage of peroxide.

Third stage larva

Third stage larva
© Giancarlo Dessi

Olive with a fresh bite mark

Olive with a fresh bite mark
of Dacus (Bactrocera) oleae

Exit holes created by the Olive fruit fly

Exit holes created by the Olive fruit fly
© Giancarlo Dessi

Due to the attacks from this fly, secondary qualitative damages also occur. The remains left behind by the larva inside the fruit, produce fungi that deteriorate the quality of the oil extracted. This secondary damage in quality is more obvious in oils extracted from olives that have been attacked, then picked from the ground or that they may also have been stored for many days before being ground in the olive press.


Detection and monitoring

1 to 2 traps per hectare should be placed depending on the location and homogeneity of the plots.

The traps should be installed 3 months before harvesting, on the south side of the olive trees at 1.5 to 2 metres high.


Mass trapping

10 to 20 traps per hectare should be placed depending on the location and homogeneity of the plots. One trap controls an area of 500 to 1.000 m2.

The traps should be installed as soon as there are captures and 3 months before harvesting. The traps should be placed on the south side of the olive trees at 1.5 to 2 metres high.

On the borders of the plots, it will be necessary to set a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres apart from each other.


Period of use

To obtain good control of the olive fruit fly it is advisable to combine the two methods: detection and monitoring; and mass trapping.

At the beginning of summer, 1 trap per hectare should be placed for the detection of the pest and the observation of its population levels. Through tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures is later defined, in this case mass trapping.

The tolerance threshold for Dacus (bactrocera) oleae is very low and varies depending on the area. In general, captures per trap and per day are between 1 and 5.


CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT

ECONEX CERATITIS pheromone diffuser CAPITATA 90 DAYS

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT KIT
(Code: VA345)
Kit composed of a disposable trap with four tablets of food attractant to dilute in water + 1 hanger

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ECONEX CERATITIS pheromone diffuser CAPITATA 90 DAYS

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 10 KG
(Code: VA214)
Container with 10 kg of product.
(approx. 2000 tablets)

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ECONEX CERATITIS pheromone diffuser CAPITATA 90 DAYS

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 5 KG
(Code: VA321)
Container with 5 kg of product.
(approx. 1000 tablets)

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ECONEX CERATITIS pheromone diffuser CAPITATA 90 DAYS

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 0,25 KG
(Code: VA333)
Container with 0,25 kg of product.
(approx. 50 tablets)

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ECONEX CERATITIS pheromone diffuser CAPITATA 90 DAYS

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 1 KG
(Code: VA322)
Container with 1 kg of product.
(approx. 200 tablets)

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Recommended use

Dissolve 4 or 5 tablets in 500 ml of water and pour into an ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP.

Hang the trap from a branch at a height of 1.5 to 2 m, on the sunny side of the tree.

To examine the captures, you have to filter the contents of the trap into a strainer and keep the liquid.

It lasts approximately 100 days in normal field conditions, depending on temperature, relative humidity, degree of sun exposure and type of trap used.

ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP

ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP
(Code: TA250)

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Activation

Activate the trap by dissolving 4 or 5 tablets in 500 ml of water.

DOSIS: 70-120 traps/ha.


Detection and monitoring

Place 1 or 2 traps per hectare. The traps must be activated at least 2 weeks before the start of the target insect’s flight period.


Mass trapping

Increase the number of traps per hectare. It could be necessary from 70 to 120 traps/ha.


Product storage

The product must be stored in its original packaging in a cool and dry place. In these conditions, it will last for 2 years from the production date.


CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT KIT

Bottle-shaped disposable trap in the form of a closed bottle. It has 4 diagonal holes with yellow polypropylene inserts that have a truncated cone shape. These inserts make it easier for the target insects to enter the trap, both by chromotropic attraction as well as its funnel shape, also preventing their exit. The trap contains four tablets (20 g) of food attractant to dissolve in 500 ml of water. The trap includes a wire hanger to hang from a branch.

It lasts approximately 100 days in normal field conditions, provided that the level of water remains stable. This will depend on temperature, relative humidity, wind and sun exposure.

INSTRUCTIONS: Take the bottle cap off, add 500 ml of water (up to the indicated level on the inside sticker), close the bottle cap again, remove the upper label to open the holes and hang the bottle from a branch on the sunny side of the tree. Refill the bottle if more than 1/3 of water evaporates.

PRODUCT STORAGE: The product must be stored in its original packaging without opening it in a cool and dry place. In these conditions, it will last for 2 years from the production date.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT KIT


ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 20 MG 60 DAYS
ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 30 MG 90 DAYS

Pheromone diffuser to attract the olive fruit fly males Bactrocera oleae + 1 hanger in the form of a clip. It lasts 60 and 90 days respectively.

The diffuser is a polyethylene tube that is individually packaged in an aluminium sachet with label specifications.

Once removed from its packaging, the diffuser needs no activation or opening, just placed correctly in the trap.

Necessary material

DACUSNEX® COMBI is used together with an ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM , so that the flies attracted by the diffuser are caught on the surface of the trap. ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 20 MG 60 DAYS  or ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 30 MG 90 DAYS  diffuser from one of the holes on the trap. Use the hanger provided with the product.

Difussser 1 unit

ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 20 MG 60 DAYS
Packaging, attractant+pheromone of Bactrocera oleae.
(Code: VA122)

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Difussser 1 unit

ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 30 MG 90 DAYS
Packaging, attractant+pheromone of Bactrocera oleae.
(Code: VA402)

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Chromatic yellow

ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM
(Code: TA125)

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DACUSNEX® COMBI

DACUSNEX® COMBIis a product authorised for use in organic farming. It is a combination of 2 attractants: a food attractant and the female pheromone attractant of Bactrocera oleae. It is used to attract males and females of the olive fruit fly.

The diffuser is a blister pack which is individually packaged in an aluminium sachet with labelled specifications. It lasts for 90 days under normal field conditions.

Once removed from its packaging, the diffuser does not need activating or opening, just placed correctly in the trap.

Olive tree trap

Necessary material

In general DACUSNEX® COMBI is used together with an ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM , so that the flies attracted by the diffuser are caught on the surface of the trap. Once the trap has been installed in the olive tree, hang the DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS Use the hanger provided with the product. Do not place the metallic part in contact with the adhesive.

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Difussser 1 unit

DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS 1 UNIT
Packaging and hanger with front and back view of the attractant diffuser.
(Code: VA253)

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Packaging 20 units

DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS
20 UNITS .

(Code: VA334)

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Chromatic yellow

ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM
(Code: TA125)

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Storing the diffusers

The diffusers must be stored in their original packaging in a cool place.

To preserve the diffusers for long periods of time, it is recommended to keep them in the refrigerator at 4o C, or in the freezer at -20o C in which case they will last for 2 and 4 years respectively.


Packaging CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT


CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT KIT

Corrugated cardboard box 35 units
Box size: 0,42 x 0,60 x 0,27 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 3,10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 28
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 2,05 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 96 kg

Box of 35 units

Box of 35 units.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 10 KG

Corrugated cardboard box of 2 units
Box size: 0,40 x 0,60 x 0,35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 22,80 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 466 kg

Box of 2 units

Box of 2 units.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 5 KG

Corrugated cardboard box of 4 units
Box size: 0,40 x 0,60 x 0,35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 22,70 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 464 kg

Box of 4 units

Box of 4 units.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 0,25 KG

Corrugated cardboard box of 10 units
Box size: 0,32 x 0,24 x 0,22 m length x width x height).
Box weight: 3,25 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: : 88
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 296 kg

Box of 10 units

Box of 10 units.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT 1 KG

Corrugated cardboard box of 16 units
Box size: 0,40 x 0,60 x 0,35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 19,10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 392 kg

Box of 16 units

Box of 16 units.


ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP

Corrugated cardboard box of 35 units
Box size: 0,42 x 0,60 x 0,27 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 2,10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 28
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 2,05 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 69 kg

Box of 35 units

Box of 35 units.


Packaging BACTROCERA OLEAE


ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 20 MG 60 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units).
Box size: 0,32 x 0,24 x 0,22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 1,6 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 80.
Pallet size:0,80 x 1,20 x 2,05 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 162 kg.

Pack of 20 units

Pack of 20 units.
Includes a product information leaflet

Box of 400 units

Box of 400 units.
(20 packs x 20 units)


ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 30 MG 90 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units).
Box size: 0,32 x 0,24 x 0,22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 1.6 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 80.
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 2,05 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 162 kg.

Pack of 20 units

Pack of 20 units.
Includes a product information leaflet

Box of 400 units

Box of 400 units.
(20 packs x 20 units)


ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM

Corrugated cardboard box of 250 units
Box size: 0,29 x 0,42 x 0,21 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 16 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1,00 x 1,10 x 1,25 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 810 kg

Box of 500 units

Box of 250 units.


Packaging DACUSNEX® COMBI


DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS 1 UNIT.

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (80 packs of 5 units).
Box size: 0,40 x 0,60 x 0,35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 12 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 250 kg.

Pack of 5 units

Pack of 5 units.
Includes a product information leaflet

Box of 400 units

Box of 400 units.
(80 packs x 5 units)


DACUSNEX ® COMBI 90 DAYS 20 UNITS.

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units).
Box size: 0,40 x 0,60 x 0,35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 11 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 0,80 x 1,20 x 1,95 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 230 kg.

Pack of 5 units

Pack of 20 units.

Box of 400 units

Box of 400 units.
(20 packs of 20 units)
Includes a product information leaflet

ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM

Corrugated cardboard box of 250 units
Box size: 0,29 x 0,42 x 0,21 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 16 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1,00 x 1,10 x 1,25 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 810 kg

Box of 500 units

Box of 250 units.


Recommended information:


CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT LEAFLET

Leaflet in PDF format that can be downloaded by clicking on the image.

CERATINEX® ATTRACTANT LEAFLET


ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE LEAFLET

Leaflet in PDF format that can be downloaded by clicking on the image.

ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE LEAFLET


ECONEX DACUSNEX© COMBI LEAFLET

Leaflet in PDF format that can be downloaded by clicking on the image.

ECONEX DACUSNEX© COMBI LEAFLET


ECONEX WEB RESOURCES

ECONEX corporate website section that allows you to access online information on ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other especially relevant agricultural and forestry pests.

To access the ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.

ECONEX WEB RESOURCES