Bactrocera oleae

This species is related to plants of the Olea genus and specifically to the olive tree. It is found throughout the Mediterranean Basin, South Africa, Canary Islands, India and Western Asia. In the Western hemisphere, it is only found in California. It is considered to be the most important pest of olive trees in the regions where it is present, even conditioning the quantity and quality of the majority of crops.

Its attacks tend to increase in wetter and colder areas, with great variability according to the variety of olives cultivated. It is less noticeable in areas with dry and hot summers.

MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY

The adult insect is a reddish-grey or orange colour which is highlighted by black spots.

It has transparent, iridescent wings and the lower part of its thorax is yellow. Its eggs are elongated and white. The larva is apodous and white. The pupa is elongated and a yellowish colour. When it grows, its colour darkens.

On average, two to three generations can be observed every year, depending on the climatic conditions. They usually overwinter in pupal stage which is located underground at little depth.

The adults of the first generation appear in March or April and spend some time feeding on sugary substances, such as the honeydew from some Homoptera, until they reach sexual maturity and begin to lay eggs. The female lays the eggs underneath the skin of the chosen olive. The olive should have an appropriate level of maturity and must not be occupied by another egg. It is common for this insect to lay only one egg per olive.

After hatching, the larva feeds on the olive by excavating a small and torturous gallery. Once the larva has finished growing, it pupates inside the fruit near the skin.

Flight activity of the olive fruit fly reaches its highest peaks in July and October. However, there is a greater increase in flight activity during October.

DAMAGES

There are two types of damage caused by the olive fruit fly: quantitative and qualitative.

Regarding quantitative damages, they are caused by second stage larvae and especially third stage larvae. They consume an important amount of the olive’s pulp which, as a consequence, reduces the performance of the oil. Part of the production is lost because the olives that have been attacked fall prematurely from the tree.

In olives used to produce oil, damage caused by the egg laying and the first stage larvae do not have significant economic impact. However, for table olives, the egg laying depreciates the value of the product.

Regarding qualitative damage, the olives with a high percentage of this pest produce oil of the worst quality, particularly if they are third stage larvae. The oil extracted from these olives can have a level of acidity (expressed in oleic acid) from 2 to 10% depending on the percentage of infestation. It is also less possible to preserve these oils because they contain a higher percentage of Peroxide.

Due to the attacks from this fly, secondary qualitative damages also occur. The remains that the larva leaves inside the fruit creates fungi that deteriorate the quality of the oil extracted. This secondary damage in quality is more obvious in oils extracted from olives that have been attacked, then picked from the ground or that they may also have been stored for many days before being ground in the olive press.

Pheromone diffuser to attract the olive fruit fly males Bactrocera oleae + 1 hanger in the form of a clip. It lasts 60 days in field conditions.

The diffuser is a polyethylene tube that is individually packaged in an aluminium sachet with label specifications.

Once removed from its packaging, the diffuser needs no activation or opening, just placed correctly in the trap.


3,25 € (excl. VAT)

The pheromone diffuser is used with an ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM, so the flies attracted by the diffuser are caught on the surface of the trap.

Once the trap has been placed in the olive tree, hang the ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 20 MG 60 DAYS diffuser from one of the holes on the trap. Use the hanger provided with the product.

DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS is a combination of 2 attractants: a food attractant and a pheromone attractant of Bactrocera oleae. It is used to attract males and females of the olive fruit fly.

The diffuser is in a blister pack and individually packaged in an aluminium sachet with label specifications. It lasts 90 days in field conditions.

Once removed from its packaging, the diffuser needs no activation or opening, just placed correctly in the trap.

DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS is used with an ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM, so the flies attracted by the diffuser are caught on the surface of the trap.

Once the trap has been placed in the olive tree, hang the DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS diffuser from one of the holes on the trap. Use the hanger provided with the product. Do not place the metallic part in contact with the adhesive.

2,90 € (excl. VAT)

2,84 € (excl. VAT)

NECESSARY MATERIAL

ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM (Code: TA125).

ECONEX YELLOW CHROMATIC 40 X 25 CM is an adhesive trap, made of a yellow polythene sheet resistant to sunlight and with a 2×2 black grid on either side, to facilitate counting the captured insects.

The sheet is coated on both sides with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, without solvents which is protected by sheets of translucent silicone paper.

A 1 cm margin is left free of the adhesive along the longest side on both sides of the sheet. This is to make handling the sheet easier.

It has a hole in each corner to make installing it easier.


0,87 € (excl. VAT)

DETECTION AND MONITORING

1 to 2 traps per hectare should be placed depending on the location and homogeneity of the plots.

The traps should be placed on the south side of the olive trees at a height of 1.5 to 2 metres and 3 months before harvesting.

MASS TRAPPING

10 to 20 traps per hectare should be placed depending on the location and homogeneity of the plots. One trap controls 500 to 1.000 m2.

The traps should be placed as soon as you have captures and 3 months before harvesting. The traps should be placed on the south side of the olive trees at a height of 1.5 to 2 metres.

On the borders of the plots, it will be necessary to place a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres apart from each other.

PERIOD OF USE

To obtain good control of the olive fruit fly it is advisable to combine the two methods: detection and monitoring; and mass trapping.

At the beginning of summer, 1 trap per hectare should be placed for the detection of the pest and the observation of its population levels. Through tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures is later defined, in this case mass trapping.

The tolerance threshold for Bactrocera oleae is very low and depends on the area. In general, captures per trap and per day are between 1 and 5.

STORING THE DIFFUSERS

The diffusers must be stored in their original packaging in a cool place.

To preserve the diffusers for long periods of time, it is recommended to keep them in the refrigerator at 4 oC; or in the freezer at -20 oC, in which case they will last for 2 and 4 years respectively.

PACKAGING

ECONEX BACTROCERA OLEAE 20 MG 60 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 3.000 units (150 packs of 20 units)
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 9.8 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 203 kg.

DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS 1 UNIT

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (80 packs of 5 units)
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 12 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 250 kg.


DACUSNEX® COMBI 90 DAYS 20 UNITS

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units)
Box size: 0.60×0.40×0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 11 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20×0.80×1.90 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 230 kg.

Recommended information:

ECONEX WEB RESOURCES

Section of the ECONEX corporate website that allows you access to online information about ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other relevant agricultural and forest pests.

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